Background - Diabetes Risk Factors

Non-modifiable Risk Factors

  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Gender
  • Family history of T2DM
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome

Modifiable Risk Factors

  • Obesity
  • Physical inactivity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Dietary factors
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hypertension
  • Inflammation

Diabetes Prevalence

The worldwide diabetes prevalence is highly increasing. To date 371 Mio. individuals are affected by diabetes. It was estimated that in 2030 7.7% of the population (552 Mio.) will be affected by diabetes (IDF Diabetes Atlas 2012).

This development is associated with enormous costs for all health systems. In 2012, 471 billion USD were spent due to diabetes worldwide.

Diabetes Complications

It is well known, that diabetes is associated with various complications as retinopathy, nephropathy, coronary heart disease, diabetic foot syndrome or neuropathy. At the time of diagnosis up to 30% of diabetic individuals already are affected by one or more of these complications (Diabetes Care, 2009).

Several studies have revealed that stringent HbA1c monitoring plays a major role in above mentioned complications, since by lowering HbA1c values of 1% up to 37% less microvascular complications, 14% less myocardial infarction and 21% less diabetes-related deaths can be achieved (Stratton et al. BMJ 2000).